Amelia-Hermina MicuLaw office

Where innovation and technology meets the law



The Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0. is the digital revolution, characterized by a fusion of technologies that sublimate the boundaries between the worlds - the physical, the digital and the biological one and transform the society we live in today.

Technologies of all kinds, especially digital ones, combine with data analysis, artificial intelligence, cognitive technologies and the Internet of Things (IoT) to create digital businesses that are not only interconnected but perfectly capable of making informed decisions.

The new rule for the future is going to be “Anything that can be connected, will be connected”.

The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a system of interconnected mechanical, digital or IT&C devices whose unique feature is the identification of components, but also the communication between them without the interaction of the human factor.

IoT encompasses all devices that can detect aspects of the real world such as: temperature, light, presence or absence of persons or objects, etc. IoT collects this information and acts on it. Smart devices use Wi-Fi internet technology to communicate with each other, or sometimes directly through the Cloud. Thus, among the devices using this technology we find objects used in daily activities (cars, lighting, refrigerators, home security systems, etc.). Ideally, the central access point is held by the user, via his smartphone, tablet or laptop wherever he is.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is much more than just connecting devices to the Internet and Cloud, it’s about generating new business insights, automating business and production processes and accelerating innovation cycles. The vast array of IoT implementations are difficult to comprehend, as they can encompass everything from factories that run with little staff to smarter cities to virtual reality assisted repairs and medical procedures.

What all these use cases have in common is multiple connected devices, which show no sign of slowing down anytime soon. In fact, the number of enterprise IoT devices is expected to reach 20 billion by 2020, which in turn is generating massive amounts of data.

Artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things are both unique technologies on their own, but they intersect. All these IoT devices generate a lot of data that needs to be collected and mined for actionable results. This is where Artificial Intelligence comes into the picture. Internet of Things is used to collect and handle the huge amount of data that is required by the Artificial Intelligence algorithms. In turn, these algorithms convert the data into useful actionable results that can be implemented by the IoT devices.

“IoT is like the body, and AI is the brains”, which together can create new value propositions, business models, revenue streams and services.

The symbiosis between Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things it has already been successfully applied in real-world and we mention applications like Tesla Motors-Self Driving Cars, Collaborative Robots, Drones, Smart Cities, Digital Twins , Smart Retailing.

Edge computing is an IT deployment designed to put applications and data as close as possible to the users or “things” that need them. While Cloud computing drove the creation of mega data centres, Edge computing brings distributed IT with an exponential number of micro data centres.

Many IoT applications rely on cloud-based resources for computer power, data storage and application intelligence that yields business insights. However, it’s often not optimal to send all the data generated by sensors and devices directly to the cloud, for reasons that generally come down to bandwidth, latency and regulatory requirements.

Edge computing is necessary to address shortcomings in cloud-based applications and services with respect to performance and regulatory requirements.

Augmented Reality (AR) is computer-generated content overlaid on a real world environment. Augmented reality is a powerful tool for visualizing data, and its power increases with every new piece of information it receives. IoT is a combination of physical objects with virtual representations and services. Augmented reality provides an ideal interface to IoT applications by superimposing virtual information about smart objects and services on a user’s view of the real world.

Augmented Reality (AR) must be distinguished from Virtual Reality (VR) as, where VR creates an entirely artificial world entered by the user, AR adds extra information layers to the user’s actual physical world in real time.

The ultra-fast and ultra-low latency connectivity provided by 5G networks represents the missing element to bring these technologies to new levels and enable the intelligent connectivity vision.

Rapid technological developments and globalization have created new challenges for the protection of personal data. The extent of the collection and exchange of personal data has increased significantly.

The protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data is a fundamental right.

The legislation in the field of data protection is based on the principles of transparency, their legitimate use, proportionality, on the security and confidentiality of the processing of personal data in order to protect consumers and to prevent unauthorized access and misuse of personal data.

IoT devices can favor the crime phenomenon and will expand the area of criminal acts.

As affected legal areas we mention: private life, security, manufacturers liability for damages caused by IT products, intellectual property , etc.

Considering how new technologies will influence the safety of individuals, organizations and states in the future, it is obvious that besides the Industry 4.0 a revolution of the legislation in the field will follow.

Examples of IoT applications:

  • smart cities;
  • Intelligent machines;
  • smart buildings;
  • smart agriculture.

The Internet of Things offers a number of economic benefits, allowing traders:

  • saving time and money;
  • integration and adaptation of business models;
  • making better business decisions;
  • monitor global business processes.